On May 4, 1867, Guillaume acted. What happened next is open to some debate. According to the New Orleans Times, at 11:30 a.m. Guillaume hailed a “Whites Only” car number 148 on Love Street, now known as Rampart. When the driver refused to stop,…

Joseph Guillaume had had enough. The Civil War was over, Reconstruction was in full swing, yet still the practice of segregation on the streetcars of New Orleans continued. Every third streetcar—although it was sometimes less often—was supposed…